While the Revolution of created the United States, the Civil War of determined what kind of nation it would be. The war resolved two fundamental questions left unresolved by the revolution: Northern victory in the war preserved the United States as one nation and ended the institution of slavery that had divided the country from its beginning. But these achievements came at the cost oflives--nearly as many American soldiers as died in all the other wars in which this country has fought combined.
Washington Territory was just under eight years old and more than a quarter century away from statehood.
The most populous town in the territory was Walla Walla, with people, including 17 Indians and one African American. This count excluded most Indians. The nation's far Northwest was a continent away from the blood-drenched battlefields of the War Between the States, slave-free with only one or two known exceptionsand populated by men and women intent on making new lives in a new land.
An indeterminate number of the territory's men went east to voluntarily enlist, most on the Union side, although the siren song of states'-rights supremacy drew some to fight for the Confederacy. Others volunteered or were conscripted for the newly mustered First Washington Volunteer Infantry, which never saw battle.
Many in the territory were ambivalent on the issue of slavery, but strongly in favor of preserving the union. Although not one shot was fired in anger in Washington Territory due to the war, nor any property destroyed, the people of the Northwest, in common with the rest of the nation, were deeply affected by the outcome of this most lethal of American conflicts.
More than 60 years later, the Organic Act of extended that prohibition to Oregon Territory, which then included all of what would much later become Washington state. But the ban on slavery did not mean that the territories were free of racism -- both as a Territory and as a State, Oregon sought to bar free blacks from residing within its borders.
When Washington Territory was carved off from the unwieldy Oregon Territory init remained subject to the law prohibiting slavery, but it did not copy Oregon's attempts to bar free blacks from settlement.
In the years leading up to the Civil War, former slaves and free black men and women seeking new lives in the Northwest had little choice but to settle north of Oregon. This they did, albeit in small numbers -- the federal census counted only 30 African Americans living in Washington Territory, 26 men and just four women.
In the U. Supreme Court, in the infamous Dred Scott decision, ruled that Congress had no power to prohibit slavery in the territories. Washington's Territorial Legislature passed a resolution expressing its approval of the decision, but the court's ruling turned out to have virtually no practical effect in the far hinterlands of the Northwest.
There was little if any public support for allowing slavery in the territory, despite the fact that a significant number of those settling the area had come from the slaveholding states. Unlike in the intensively agricultural South, there was simply no need for slave labor in the territory, regardless of one's opinions about the morality of what had come to be called the "peculiar institution.
Shortly before the Civil War began, there was known to be one slave in the territory and reports of a second. The latter was a woman, rumored to reside with her "owner" at Fort Steilacoom; little information about her has survived.
But the existence of the other, a young man named Charles Mitchell, is well documented. His mother, personal servant to a child of the Gibson family that owned the plantation, died of cholera in Young Mitchell's legal status in Washington Territory after the Dred Scott decision was open to dispute.
As a matter of law, after the Supreme Court's ruling, slavery was legal in all American territories, at least until statehood was achieved and a vote taken on the issue.
Yet, with apparently just the two exceptions, slaves were not kept in Washington. Inwhen Mitchell was induced to stow away on a vessel heading for the Crown Colony of Victoria on Vancouver Island, the question of his status -- property or free person -- suddenly became a very public issue.
Victoria had a large black community inestimated by some to be as high as 25 percent of the population. A black man visiting Olympia from Victoria noticed Mitchell and over the course of several conversations convinced him to flee to Canada, where, he was told, he would be without question free.
He was hidden in the pantry of the mail steamer Eliza Anderson, but was discovered there and held under lock and key until the vessel docked in Victoria. It was the intent of the ship's captain, John Fleming, to return Mitchell to the custody of Tilton on the return trip.
Henry Creasea Victoria barrister, took up Mitchell's cause and obtained a writ of habeas corpus compelling his release from the ship.
After spending one night in the Victoria jail, he was given over to the care of the town's black community.
Both James Tilton and Captain Fleming filed protests with the colonial government, to no avail.
In the view of Canadian authorities, Canada was slave-free, Mitchell was in Canada, and that was that. Appeals by Tilton to the government in Washington D. The nature of the relationship between Mitchell and Tilton was ambiguous, as historian Lorraine McConaghy has described: In the last analysis, Charles Mitchell was owned and was not free to come and go as he pleased -- severed from his family, a black child in a white household" "Charles Mitchell, Slavery, and Washington Territory in ".
The territorial press coverage of the Mitchell case shows that Washington Territory, although virtually free of slaves, was not free of a racist and paternalistic attitude towards African Americans.
In a long recounting of Charles Mitchell's escape and the ensuing legal actions, the Territory's oldest newspaper, the Olympia Pioneer and Democrat, closely tied to the Democratic Party, let the veil slip: The Election of Going into the presidential election ofAmerica's political parties were sharply divided on the question of slavery's place in the nation's territories.
The sitting president, James Buchananwas a pro-slavery Democrat, but his party had split into two factions on the issue. One believed slavery should be decided by a vote of the people of the individual territories, and it nominated Stephen A.
Douglas for president in Causes of the Civil War Summary & Analysis. BACK; NEXT ; And The War Came. America's Civil War was a looong time coming. With long-simmering tensions over slavery, state rights versus federal control, and geographical expansion, violent attack seemed like the last resort to getting terribly stubborn issues solved.
American, Civil war, USA, history, - The History of the American Civil War - The majority of speculations regarding the causes of the American Civil War are in some relation to slavery. While slavery was a factor in the disagreements that led to the Civil War, it was not the solitary or primary cause.
Analysis of Tony Horwitz's Book.
Civil War Battles, Casualties & Statistics, Generals, Life of a Soldier, Prisoners, & Military. Updated December JUMP TO: BATTLE INFORMATION / CASUALTIES & STATISTICS / MEDICINE. GENERALS & OFFICERS. The Events That Caused The American Civil War Causes Of The Civil War Summary States’ Rights The Missouri Compromise The Dred Scott Decision The Abolitionist Movement Abolitionist John Brown John Brown’s Raid On Harpers Ferry Slavery In America Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad Harriet Beecher Stowe Uncle Tom’s .
African-American history is the part of American history that looks at the African-Americans or Black Americans in the United States.. Although previously marginalized, African-American history has gained ground in school and university curricula and gained wider scholarly attention since the late 20th timberdesignmag.com black history that pre-dates the slave trade is rarely taught in schools and is.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States (U.S.) from to The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U.S. history. Largely as a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April , when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina, shortly after.