The underlying principles for this model assume that organizations progress through a maturity curve and that each level of organizational maturity directly affects the level of investment and types of PPM approaches organizations choose to adopt. These levels range from least mature, Level 1, to fully mature, Level 5 see Figure 1. People are the most critical part of any project- or program-centric endeavor. The interdependencies among people in terms of their availability, their skills, their contribution to the work that needs to be done and their career aspirations are of critical importance.
Anatomy of the visual apparatus Structures auxiliary to the eye The orbit The eye is protected from mechanical injury by being enclosed in a socket, or orbit, which is made up of portions of several of the bones of the skull to form a four-sided pyramid, the apex of which points back into the head.
Thus, the floor of the orbit is made up of parts of the maxilla, zygomatic, and palatine bones, while the roof is made up of the orbital plate of the frontal bone and, behind this, by the lesser wing of the sphenoid.
The optic foramenthe opening through which the optic nerve runs back into the brain and the large ophthalmic artery enters the orbit, is at the nasal side of the apex; the superior orbital fissure is a larger hole through which pass large veins and nerves. These nerves may carry nonvisual sensory messages—e.
There are other fissures and canals transmitting nerves and blood vessels.
The eyeball and its functional muscles are surrounded by a layer of orbital fat that acts much like a cushion, permitting a smooth rotation of the eyeball about a virtually fixed point, the centre of rotation. The protrusion of the eyeballs—proptosis—in exophthalmic goitre is caused by the collection of fluid in the orbital fatty tissue.
The eyelids It is vitally important that the front surface of the eyeball, the cornea, remain moist. This is achieved by the eyelids, which during waking hours sweep the secretions of the lacrimal apparatus and other glands over the surface at regular intervals and which during sleep cover the eyes and prevent evaporation.
The lids have the additional function of preventing injuries from foreign bodies, through the operation of the blink reflex. The lids are essentially folds of tissue covering the front of the orbit and, when the eye is open, leaving an almond-shaped aperture.
The points of the almond are called canthi; that nearest the nose is the inner canthus, and the other is the outer canthus. The lid may be divided into four layers: The conjunctiva is a mucous membrane that serves to attach the eyeball to the orbit and lids but permits a considerable degree of rotation of the eyeball in the orbit.
The portion that lines the lids is called the palpebral portion of the conjunctiva; the portion covering the white of the eyeball is called the bulbar conjunctiva.
Between the bulbar and the palpebral conjunctiva there are two loose, redundant portions forming recesses that project back toward the equator of the globe.
These recesses are called the upper and lower fornices, or conjunctival sacs; it is the looseness of the conjunctiva at these points that makes movements of lids and eyeball possible. The fibrous layer The fibrous layer, which gives the lid its mechanical stability, is made up of the thick, and relatively rigid, tarsal plates, bordering directly on the palpebral aperture, and the much thinner palpebral fascia, or sheet of connective tissue; the two together are called the septum orbitale.
When the lids are closed, the whole opening of the orbit is covered by this septum. Two ligaments, the medial and lateral palpebral ligaments, attached to the orbit and to the septum orbitale, stabilize the position of the lids in relation to the globe.
Defining the number, proportion, or lineage of distinct cell types in the developing human brain is an important goal of modern brain research. We defined single cell transcriptomic profiles for 40, cells at mid-gestation to identify cell types in the developing human neocortex. We define. Databases and Information Systems Integration, Artificial Intelligence and Decision Support Systems, Information Systems Analysis and Specification, Software Agents and Internet Computing, Human-Computer Interaction, Enterprise Architecture. Human eye: Human eye, specialized sense organ in humans that is capable of receiving visual images, which are relayed to the brain. The anatomy of the eye includes auxillary structures, such as the bony eye socket and extraocular muscles, as well as the structures of the eye itself, such as the lens and the retina.
The medial ligament is by far the stronger. The muscles of the lids Closure of the lids is achieved by contraction of the orbicularis muscle, a single oval sheet of muscle extending from the regions of the forehead and face and surrounding the orbit into the lids.
It is divided into orbital and palpebral portions, and it is essentially the palpebral portion, within the lid, that causes lid closure.
The palpebral portion passes across the lids from a ligament called the medial palpebral ligament and from the neighbouring bone of the orbit in a series of half ellipses that meet outside the outer corner of the eye, the lateral canthus, to form a band of fibres called the lateral palpebral raphe.
The muscle of Riolan, lying close to the lid margins, contributes to keeping the lids in close apposition. The orbital portion of the orbicularis is not normally concerned with blinking, which may be carried out entirely by the palpebral portion; however, it is concerned with closing the eyes tightly.
It must be appreciated that the two portions can be activated independently; thus, the orbital portion may contract, causing a furrowing of the brows that reduces the amount of light entering from above, while the palpebral portion remains relaxed and allows the eyes to remain open.
Opening of the eye is not just the result of passive relaxation of the orbicularis muscle but also is the effect of the contraction of the levator palpebrae superioris muscle of the upper lid.
This muscle takes origin with the extraocular muscles at the apex of the orbit as a narrow tendon and runs forward into the upper lid as a broad tendon, the levator aponeurosis, which is attached to the forward surface of the tarsus and the skin covering the upper lid. Contraction of the muscle causes elevation of the upper eyelid.
The nervous connections of this muscle are closely related to those of the extraocular muscle required to elevate the eye, so that when the eye looks upward the upper eyelid tends to move up in unison.
The orbicularis and levator are striated muscles under voluntary control. The lids also contain smooth involuntary muscle fibres that are activated by the sympathetic division of the autonomic system and tend to widen the palpebral fissure the eye opening by elevation of the upper, and depression of the lower, lid.
In addition to the muscles already described, other facial muscles often cooperate in the act of lid closure or opening.
The pyramidalis, or procerusmuscles occupy the bridge of the nose; they arise from the lower portion of the nasal bones and are attached to the skin of the lower part of the forehead on either side of the midline; they pull the skin into transverse furrows.
In lid opening, the frontalis muscle, arising high on the forehead, midway between the coronal suture, a seam across the top of the skull, and the orbital margin, is attached to the skin of the eyebrows.
Contraction therefore causes the eyebrows to rise and opposes the action of the orbital portion of the orbicularis; the muscle is especially used when one gazes upward.
It is also brought into action when vision is rendered difficult either by distance or the absence of sufficient light. The skin The outermost layer of the lid is the skin, with features not greatly different from skin on the rest of the body, with the possible exception of large pigment cells, which, although found elsewhere, are much more numerous in the skin of the lids.Bronfenbrenner Analysis Name: Course: Tutor: Date: Urie Bronfenbrenner is today credited and known in the psychology development field for the development of the ecological systems theory constructed to offer an explanation of the way everything in a child and .
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Bronfenbrenner Analysis of Ecological Human Development Theory Essay - The ecological theory of development was created by a Russian American psychologist named Urie Bronfenbrenner. Databases and Information Systems Integration, Artificial Intelligence and Decision Support Systems, Information Systems Analysis and Specification, Software Agents and Internet Computing, Human-Computer Interaction, Enterprise Architecture.
Human eye: Human eye, specialized sense organ in humans that is capable of receiving visual images, which are relayed to the brain. The anatomy of the eye includes auxillary structures, such as the bony eye socket and extraocular muscles, as well as the structures of the eye itself, such as the lens and the retina.
Bronfenbrenner Analysis of Ecological Human Development Theory Essay - The ecological theory of development was created by a Russian American psychologist named Urie Bronfenbrenner. He developed the theory based on his belief that all children grow and develop differently based on their environmental factors and the situations surrounding those.