Seizing the Initiative Through Creative Thinking Versus Reacting to the Enemy local copyby Grothe, SAMS paper, Leadership must be committed to learning, underwrite experimentation, and create an environment that generates creative thought and innovation. Doctrine must incorporate more aspects of innovation, creative and critical thinking and innovative leadership. The most critical area the Army must focus change in is within Professional Military Education for field grade officers. When words represent some indistinct idea, they are susceptible to reinvention or distortion with potentially significant unintended consequences.
History[ edit ] The practice of literary theory became a profession in the 20th century, but it has historical roots that run as far back as ancient Greece Aristotle 's Poetics is an often cited early exampleancient India Bharata Muni 's Natya Shastraancient Rome Longinus 's On the Sublime and medieval Iraq Al-Jahiz 's al-Bayan wa-'l-tabyin and al-Hayawan, and ibn al-Mu'tazz 's Kitab al-Badi.
The theory and criticism of literature are, of course, also closely tied to the history of literature.
However, the modern sense of "literary theory" only dates to approximately the s when the structuralist linguistics of Ferdinand de Saussure began to strongly influence English language literary criticism. The New Critics and various European-influenced formalists particularly the Russian Formalists had described some of their more abstract efforts as "theoretical" as well.
But it was not until the broad impact of structuralism began to be felt in the English-speaking academic world that "literary theory" was thought of as a unified domain. In the academic world of the United Kingdom and the United States, literary theory was at its most popular from the late s when its influence was beginning to spread outward from elite universities like Johns HopkinsYaleand Cornell through the s by which time it was taught nearly everywhere in some form.
During this span of time, literary theory was perceived as academically cutting-edge, and most university literature departments sought to teach and study theory and incorporate it into their curricula. Because of its meteoric rise in popularity and the difficult language of its key texts, theory was also often criticized as faddish or trendy obscurantism and many academic satire novels of the period, such as those by David Lodgefeature theory prominently.
Some scholars, both theoretical and anti-theoretical, refer to the s and s debates on the academic merits of theory as "the theory wars".
By the early s, the popularity of "theory" as a subject of interest by itself was declining slightly along with job openings for pure "theorists" even as the texts of literary theory were incorporated into the study of almost all literature.
Bythe controversy over the use of theory in literary studies had quieted down, and discussions on the topic within literary and cultural studies tend now to be considerably milder and less lively. However, some scholars like Mark Bauerlein continue to argue that less capable theorists have abandoned proven methods of epistemologyresulting in persistent lapses in learning, research, and evaluation.
Specific theories are distinguished not only by their methods and conclusions, but even by how they create meaning in a " text ". However, some theorists acknowledge that these texts do not have a singular, fixed meaning which is deemed "correct".
There are many types of literary theory, which take different approaches to texts. Even among those listed below, many scholars combine methods from more than one of these approaches for instance, the deconstructive approach of Paul de Man drew on a long tradition of close reading pioneered by the New Criticsand de Man was trained in the European hermeneutic tradition.
Differences among schools[ edit ] This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations.
Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. May Learn how and when to remove this template message The different interpretive and epistemological perspectives of different schools of theory often arise from, and so give support to, different moral and political commitments.
For instance, the work of the New Critics often contained an implicit moral dimension, and sometimes even a religious one: Eliot or Gerard Manley Hopkins for its degree of honesty in expressing the torment and contradiction of a serious search for belief in the modern world.
Meanwhile, a Marxist critic might find such judgments merely ideological rather than critical; the Marxist would say that the New Critical reading did not keep enough critical distance from the poem's religious stance to be able to understand it.Each of these titles is available under a Creative Commons license (consult the individual text for the license specifics).
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Contemporary Metaphilosophy. What is philosophy? What is philosophy for? How should philosophy be done? These are metaphilosophical questions, metaphilosophy being the study of the nature of philosophy. Decision making under risk is presented in the context of decision analysis using different decision criteria for public and private decisions based on decision criteria, type, and quality of available information together with risk assessment.
Emphasizes Time on timberdesignmag.com plus energy equals learning. There is no substitute for time on task. Learning to use one's time well is critical for students and professionals alike. color science & "color theory" Color and Culture: Practice and Meaning from Antiquity to Abstraction by John Gage – This is the perhaps the single most important work on color available from any publisher.
Gage is concerned to trace the relationships in European and American art history between painting materials, painting "color theory," and larger cultural themes drawn from morality. Literary theory in a strict sense is the systematic study of the nature of literature and of the methods for analyzing literature.
However, literary scholarship since the 19th century often includes—in addition to, or even instead of literary theory in the strict sense—considerations of intellectual history, moral philosophy, social prophecy, and other interdisciplinary themes which are of.