Reference techniques in academic writing

In the exam What is academic writing? Writing is a skill that is required in many contexts throughout life. However, academic writing has many of the things that personal writing does not have: These rules and practices may be organised around a formal order or structure in which to present ideas, in addition to ensuring that ideas are supported by author citations in the literature.

Reference techniques in academic writing

Technique[ edit ] The cut-up and the closely associated fold-in are the two main techniques: Cut-up is performed by taking a finished and fully linear text and cutting it in pieces with a few or single words on each piece.

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It is Burroughs and Gysin 's joint development. Wolman developed cut-up techniques as part of his lettrist practice in the early s. Also in the s, painter and writer Brion Gysin more fully developed the cut-up method after accidentally re-discovering it.

He had placed layers of newspapers as a mat to protect a tabletop from being scratched reference techniques in academic writing he cut papers with a razor blade. Upon cutting through the newspapers, Gysin noticed that the sliced layers offered interesting juxtapositions of text and image.

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He began deliberately cutting newspaper articles into sections, which he randomly rearranged. The book Minutes to Go resulted from his initial cut-up experiment: Gysin introduced Burroughs to the technique at the Beat Hotel.

reference techniques in academic writing

The pair later applied the technique to printed media and audio recordings in an effort to decode the material's implicit content, hypothesizing that such a technique could be used to discover the true meaning of a given text.

Burroughs also suggested cut-ups may be effective as a form of divination saying, "When you cut into the present the future leaks out. InBurroughs and Gysin published The Third Minda collection of cut-up writings and essays on the form.

Jeff Nuttall's publication My Own Mag was another important outlet for the then-radical technique. In an interview, Alan Burns noted that for Europe After The Rain and subsequent novels he used a version of cut-ups: History in literature[ edit ] Inpoets Howard W.

Lindon developed a cut-up technique known as vocabularyclept poetryin which a poem is formed by taking all the words of an existing poem and rearranging them, often preserving the metre and stanza lengths.

Collagewhich was popularized roughly contemporaneously with the Surrealist movement, sometimes incorporated texts such as newspapers or brochures. The "neo-verse drama" titled Booby, Mama! In her late s novel Blood and Guts in High SchoolAcker explored literary cut-up and appropriation as an integral part of her method.

This was part of an abandoned project called Guerrilla Conditions meant as a documentary on Burroughs and filmed throughout — Inspired by Burroughs' and Gysin's technique of cutting up text and rearranging it in random order, Balch had an editor cut his footage for the documentary into little pieces and impose no control over its reassembly.

Many audience members claimed the film made them ill, others demanded their money back, while some just stumbled out of the cinema ranting "it's disgusting".

Thom Yorke applied a similar method in Radiohead 's Kid A album, writing single lines, putting them into a hat, and drawing them out at random while the band rehearsed the songs.

Perhaps indicative of Thom Yorke's influences, [14] instructions for "How to make a Dada poem" appeared on Radiohead's website at this time.

Stephen Mallinder of Cabaret Voltaire reported to Inpress magazine's Andrez Bergen that "I do think the manipulation of sound in our early days — the physical act of cutting up tapes, creating tape loops and all that — has a strong reference to Burroughs and Gysin.The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue.

The Purdue Writing Lab Purdue University students, faculty, and staff at our West Lafayette, IN campus may access this area for information on the award-winning Purdue Writing Lab.

This area includes Writing Lab hours, services, and contact information. Academic writing has its own set of rules and practices around a formal order or structure in which to present ideas, in addition to ensuring that ideas are supported by author citations in the literature.

Visit the University Writing Centre for a range of Referencing Guides which can be downloaded or viewed online. All guides include examples of how to reference a range of formats, including various electronic and online content. Different kinds of reference styles.

Depending on the way in which they record sources, scholarly reference styles can be divided into three main categories: documentary notes styles, parenthetical (or author-date) styles, and numbered styles.

Academic Writing is a Waste of Time – Unless You Use Our Help. Have you ever tried counting how much time writing a single paper takes? Ever added up the time spent on writing essays and other assignments within a term? In Brief Liaison librarians are assuming a wide variety of new roles that serve their institutions’ students, staff, and faculty. An essential foundation of these new roles is the ability to engage with the liaison’s user community. FY Massachusetts Policies for Effective Adult Education in Community Adult Learning Centers and Correctional Institutions (Revised August ).

Within each category there are . The cut-up technique (or découpé in French) is an aleatory literary technique in which a written text is cut up and rearranged to create a new text. The concept can be traced to at least the Dadaists of the s, but was popularized in the late s and early s by writer William S.

Burroughs, and has since been used in a wide variety of contexts.

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