Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 21,
Ontological Issues What sorts of things are these candidates? In particular, should the bearers of truth-values be regarded as being linguistic items and, as a consequence, items within specific languagesor are they non-linguistic items, or are they both?
In addition, should they be regarded as being concrete entities, i.
Sentences are linguistic items: However, the term "sentence" has two senses: These three English sentence-tokens are all of the same sentence-type: Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun.
Sentence-tokens are concrete objects. They are composed of ink marks on paper, or sequences of sounds, or patches of light on a computer monitor, etc. Sentence-tokens exist in space and time; they can be located in space and can be dated.
They are abstract objects. Analogous distinctions can be made for letters, for words, for numerals, for musical notes on a stave, indeed for any symbols whatsoever.
Might sentence-tokens be the bearers of truth-values? One reason to favor tokens over types is to solve the problems involving so-called "indexical" or "token reflexive" terms such as "I" and "here" and "now".
Is the claim expressed by the sentence-type "I like chocolate" true or false? Well, it depends on who "I" is referring to. If Jack, who likes chocolate, says "I like chocolate", then what he has said is true; but if Jill, who dislikes chocolate, says "I like chocolate", then what she has said is false.
If it were sentence-types which were the bearers of truth-values, then the sentence-type "I like chocolate" would be both true and false — an unacceptable contradiction. The contradiction is avoided, however, if one argues that sentence-tokens are the bearers of truth-values, for in this case although there is only one sentence-type involved, there are two distinct sentence-tokens.
A second reason for arguing that sentence-tokens, rather than sentence-types, are the bearers of truth-values has been advanced by nominalist philosophers. Nominalists are intent to allow as few abstract objects as possible.
Insofar as sentence-types are abstract objects and sentence-tokens are concrete objects, nominalists will argue that actually uttered or written sentence-tokens are the proper bearers of truth-values. But the theory that sentence-tokens are the bearers of truth-values has its own problems.John Locke (—) John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and political theorists of the 17 th century.
He is often regarded as the founder of a school of thought known as British Empiricism, and he made foundational contributions to modern theories of limited, liberal government. Decision Making Psychology Essay.
Print discovery, incorporating ideas proposed by and Adams  to reflect the interaction between normative, descriptive theories of decision making that is the identification of the discrepancies between real (descriptive) and idealised (normative) behaviour in decision making in order to help people make.
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There are a number of theories attempting to address technology, which tend to be associated with the disciplines of science and technology studies (STS) and communication timberdesignmag.com generally, the theories attempt to address the relationship between technology and society and prompt questions about agency, determinism/autonomy, and teleonomy..
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