Write short note on computer system and management? At its most basic level, programming a computer simply means telling it what to do, and this vapid-sounding definition is not even a joke.
Character of the CGA character set consists of a box occupying the entire left half of the character matrix.
Character consists of a box occupying the entire right half. Because each character can be assigned different foreground and background colors, it can be colored for example blue on the left foreground color and bright red on the right background color. This can be reversed by swapping the foreground and background colors.
Using either character oreach half of each truncated character cell can thus be treated as an individual pixel—making horizontal pixels available per line. Although a roundabout way of achieving color graphics display, this works quite well and the mode is even mentioned although not explained in IBM's official hardware documentation.
This uses extra video memory that is normally unused. However, most games did not do this, perhaps out of fear it would only work on some monitors but not others- a fear that is not unfounded as it was later found that certain compatibles have cards that either glitch or ignore any attempt to put the device into this mode.
Composite artifact colors Using the NTSC TV-out instead of an RGBI monitor not only made for less attractive colors, as described above, but as is common with NTSC composite video, the separation between luminance and chrominance is far from perfect, yielding cross-color artifacts, or color "smearing".
This is especially a problem with column text: However, programmers soon found out that this flaw could be turned into an asset, as distinct patterns of high-resolution dots would "smear" into consistent areas of solid colors, thus allowing the display of completely new artifact colors.
Internal operation[ edit ] Direct colors are the normal 16 colors as described above under "The CGA color palette". Artifact colors are seen because the composite monitor's NTSC chroma decoder misinterprets some of the luminance information as color, as stated before.
Later demonstrations by enthusiasts have increased the maximum number of colors the CGA is known to produce in a single image to approximately a thousand.
Aside of artifacting, this technique involves the text mode tweak which quadruples its rows, thus offering the benefit of 16 foreground and 16 background colors. Resolution and usage[ edit ] Composite artifacting, whether used intentionally or as an unwanted artifact, reduces the effective horizontal resolution to a minimum of pixels, more for black-on-white or white-on-black text, without changing the vertical resolution.
The low resolution of this composite color artifacting method led to it being used almost exclusively in games.
Many of the more high-profile titles optionally, sometimes exclusively, offering graphics optimized for composite color monitors. King's Quest I was innovative in its use of color graphics on the PC, PCjr and Tandy ; even CGA owners could enjoy the color graphics by using a composite color monitor or television, thanks to programmers exploiting the inaccuracies of composite NTSC chroma decoding.
In this mode, dithering was employed to simulate extra colors. Microsoft Decathlon - Top: Game in composite mode, Bottom: Game in RGB mode, Left: Limiting the character display to the upper or upper two scanlines, and taking advantage of the pixel arrangement in certain characters of the codepageit is possible to display up to colors.
This integrated circuit was originally designed only for character-based alphanumeric text displays and can only address a maximum of character rows. To realize graphics modes with scanlines on the CGA, the MC is programmed with character rows per picture and two scanlines per character row.A monitor is sometimes incorrectly referred to as the computer, as in the hardware within the computer case, like the hard drive, video card, timberdesignmag.com example, shutting down the computer isn't the same thing as turning off the monitor.
It's important for that distinction to be made. The Color Graphics Adapter (CGA), originally also called the Color/Graphics Adapter or IBM Color/Graphics Monitor Adapter, introduced in , was IBM's first graphics card and first color display card for the IBM timberdesignmag.com this reason, it also became that computer's first color computer display standard..
The standard IBM CGA graphics card was equipped with 16 kilobytes of video memory and . If a message pops up on the screen, you will notice it when you look at the computer.
Second, turn down your screen brightness. You don’t need perfect vision of the screen while taking notes. Computer information is displayed, visually with a video adapter card and Monitor.
Information processed within the CPU, that needs to be visually displayed is sent to video adapter. The video adapter converts information from the format used, in the same manner as a television displays information sent to . Writing notes by hand can be such a pain that more and more people are taking notes on the computer.
If you choose this method, a couple of things make life much easier: Whenever you begin using a new source, give the source a number.
Aug 18, · How to Use Your TV As a Computer Monitor. In this Article: Windows Mac Community Q&A Want to make your computer experience a little bigger? Perhaps you have to make a presentation and don't have a projector, so you're turning to your 50" HD TV.